"Authenticity will be our perpetual journey~~ not only in uniform, but in action, drill and attitude.... (read more)

 Under the command of  Gen. Richard "Dick" Watters, the Southern Division plans to organize one to two events per year and... (read more)

 Members of the Southern Division have raised more than $600,000 for battlefield and historic preservation... (read more)

 From the single individual, to entire units, the Southern Division is now actively recruiting new members to join the ranks. To Join... (read more)


Gen. Richard "Dick" Watters , Cmd.'g (on right) & Adjutant Mike Scheibe

The Southern Division

Southern Division
Order of Battle

Under Revision as of 5/21/17

Under revision as of 5/21/2017

Member Units

Company D" 2nd Maryland Infantry

6th North Carolina State Troops

The Stonewall 90%;Brigade

1st North Carolina Artillery

Tar-Heel Rangers Cavalry

1st Maryland Artillery CSA

22nd North Carolina State Troops

North Carolina Field Music

South Carolina's Palmetto Battalion

26th North Carolina Regimental Band

Other Sites


The National Civil War Museum, Harrisburg, PA
Dick Watters Period Uniforms & Clothing
The National Regiment
NPS Gettysburg, PA
116th P.V.I.


The Maryland Historical Society
The Howard County Historical Society (Maryland)
The Burkittsville Preservation Association (Maryland)
The Montgomery County Historical Society (Maryland)
P.J. Gilligan's Dry Goods & Merchantile
NPS Antietam, Sharpsburg, MD

West Virginia

NPS Harpers Ferry, WV


American Civil War Museum, Richmond, VA
Pamplin Park & The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier, Petersburg, VA
NPS Appomattox Court House, VA
NPS Petersburg, VA

North Carolina

North Carolina Civil War Map of Battles
North Carolina Civil War Image Portfolio
North Carolina Civil War Soldiers' Records

South Carolina

Palmetto Battalion of South Carolina


Perryville Battlefield, Perryville, KY


Harper's Weekly Original Civil War Newspapers
NPS Civil War Soldiers and Sailors Database
Rare Flags


The Irish in the American Civil War


One aspect of the hobby that will increase both your knowledge and enjoyment of an event, is tailoring your impression to the specific campaign or timeframe of the Conflict. This allows you to learn more about the material culture as well as giving the public a better vision of the troops of the period.

Command and Staff Officers of the Division have worked together to provide you with guidelines on your impression for the 150th Anniversary Cycle of 1862.

The below are not regulations, but rather suggestions on how the infantryman of the Southern Division can “ Look 1862 ”. By appearing as the Original Boys did, we can properly demonstrate the sacrifices they made for the Cause that was so dear to them.

The Common CS soldier during 1862 traveled light and looked hard. As the campaigns mounted they would have been covered in road dust, cooking grease and looking as hard as Johnny Reb would ever look by the end of the Maryland Campaign. Their clothing and equipment would be coming to the end of its useful life span. The Commutation System was still in effect, though stumbling badly in most cases, and the Central Government Issue system was not fully functional yet. And the common soldier paid for this dearly.

To accurately portray the Common Soldier of the period, you have to take in consideration what unit you are portraying, and at what time in 1862. For example, at McDowell many CS troops were getting supplies from home as well as State Governments, so they would have a civilian-ish look to them, and then if you take in account all the marching, counter marching and battles, they would have been quite worn out by the end of the Valley campaign. By the Seven Days Campaign, many Confederate forces under Lee would still have been in decent shape to start the campaign, as compared to Jackson’s men, but by the time the Southern Forces crossed the Potomac into Maryland all troops were as foul, rotting and destitute as they would ever be.

As the year passed, more Confederate Issue Clothing and gear would be seen with the passing of each campaign and that also was augmented by captured Federal Gear with each victory. So also keep that in mind as commutation and civilian clothing and gear would be the norm in the spring campaigns, as the year progressed more Confederate Issue Items and some Federal items would be more common.

In the Spring Campaigns, troops would have been fairly well equipped to start. Clothing would still be mostly State issue or of a Civilian Flavor.

As a general rule, jackets lasted 5 months in the field, and trousers less than 3 months. This is based upon generalizing the issue records to Southern Troops throughout the War. What makes 1862 unique, is that to start the year many State Governments had shipped large quantities of uniforms and gear to Northern Virginia. For example the State of Alabama had even sent funds to construct a warehouse to store these uniforms in Centerville. One would conclude that prior to the Confederates retreating and burning the huge amount of stores they had accumulated, they would have issued all they could.

So one can assume, and it is an assumption, that many men were wearing new uniforms in March of 1862 as they headed south towards Richmond. And though operating in the field for several months prior to the Seven Days, they would have been close to their source of supply and fairly well clothed and equipped.

With this line of reasoning, then most troops of the Army of Northern Virginia headed into the Seven Days would have been in far better shape than those arriving with the Valley Army in June of 1862.

The following campaign would prove to be very hard on men and gear. Though with each Federal retreat Southerners were able to replace worn out State issue items with captured Federal goods. This does not justify Federal Uniform parts however, as much as Haversacks, Canteens, Blankets, ground cloths and knapsacks.

This was also the first campaign that the Federal forces used the “tent de abri” or shelter tent. And numbers were captured on the Peninsula, however not enough to equip the entire army with them. More often than not Johnny Reb still slept under the stars or in makeshift “shebangs” they created from tent flies or canvas cut from Common (A) tents.

August into September is the time for the worn and torn and terribly dirty impression. Rapid marches first to Cedar Mountain, then Manassas, then across the Potomac wore out what was left of the uniforms and gear the men had started with that Spring. If they were lucky, then men had picked up captured Federal Gear along the way. Trousers with worn seats, or none, covered with cooking grease, and the legs threadbare were common, as well as jackets with elbows worn out, shoulders threadbare from carrying a musket and Knapsack. Shoes worn through, and in some cases barefoot. Hats with tuff's of hair sticking through. If you enjoy being a ragged rebel, Fall, 1862, is the time to go full out.

Many troops were cut off from their source of supply from their home states as the year progressed, and the Central Government started issuing large amounts of clothing in October 1862. But by late August 1862, the Confederate soldier looked, as per one federal account “like clumps of dirt”. The lean ragged set of wolves, able to be smelled before seen, suffering from dysentery from poor rations and in general a sad sight would be the goal for this year. Except the dysentery part guys! There are just certain things I do not need from my hobby.

Another thing to keep in mind is that the clothing a NC or GA Soldier wore during this period, may or may not have differed from that which a VA or TN private wore. The individual states did equip many a regiment, but there is no hard rule that says if you are from South Carolina you would have been wearing a South Carolina Frock Coat. But it is a detail grossly under represented in our hobby. And the 1862 Cycle is the last chance in the 150th to really wear state specific clothing, so if you have it wear it.

So essentially as 1862 progresses, your kit should show more and more wear, tear and dirt. From the quasi Civilian look at McDowell, to a more State issued look at Seven Days, to finally a totally broken down appearance at Sharpsburg.

Toss in a few captured Federal items as we go from campaign to campaign, and all in all you will have a good solid impression for 1862.

Below I have listed items and the recommended versions thereof for 1862. Also I have listed ways in which to “campaign ” an item. As 2012 progresses, adding wear, tear and dirt to an item with each passing event will hopefully help us replicate the Patriot of 1862 as accurately as possible.

Head Gear

There are many choices, and your decision would be based upon what unit you are depicting:

Jean Cloth Kepi with a black or blue band, sometimes rising into a peak at the front. You can see good examples of these in the Confederate Version of Echoes of Glory.
Havelocks were not seen mach past the Spring of 1862.
CS Jean "McDowell" caps
Properly blocked and lined Civilian Hats

Remember, sun faded is preferred, and I have been known to keep a hat either outside or in a window sill to get some of that effect ….also if you work outside, wear it! Sweat stains around the band also add a lot to your impression.


There are several options for this as well. State Issued clothing, such as:

NC Jean "Regimental" Coat
NC Jean Shell Jacket
GA Issue Shell Jacket
South Carolina Issue Frock Coat
Richmond Depot I
Alabama State Issue Jacket
Texas Issued Frock
Louisiana Frock
Enlisted Jean Frock
Commutation Jackets
Over shirts (battle shirts)
Civilian Frock or Sack Coats

If all you own is a Richmond Depot II or III style jacket, you can do a "quick fix" and make these jackets appear as Early War by stitching some black or blue tape trim to the collar and/or cuffs and/or epaulets. On many originals I have found, the stitching is very poorly done, so you do not have to be a master tailor to pull it off! Remember there is a general acceptance that the Richmond Depot Pattern Jackets were based off of earlier patterns, with cost cutting measures.

A few dollars in black or blue tape trim, and about ½ an hour, and you now have a jacket that is much more period for this timeframe.

Once again, as the 1862 cycle progresses, your kit should come apart at the seams…literally. Mostly the shoulders of a coat would be sun bleached and worn from carrying a musket, the collar worn and sweat stained, the elbows almost threadbare from reclining on them, sleeves burnt in place from tending a cook fire and buttons certainly not bright and shiny- no need to soak in urine though! Salt Water works fine. I have seen folks who work outside wear their reenacting jackets to cut firewood, rake leaves or any manual task they do outside. I have also seen companies get together and play sports in their uniforms to get them dirty and or stained. I have also seen folks actually bury their clothing outside for a few weeks, then dig them up. I am not actually advocating that one however! But get inventive. It’s actually fun.


As with Coats there are many state variations you could wear. Basic CS or Civilian trousers will suffice, perhaps you might want to add a black or blue tape stripe to the out side seam of the trousers, as was often seen in this period.
As with coats, most of the trousers worn during this period would be state issued or commutation pattern. They do not differ greatly from standard Richmond Pattern Foot Trousers, but were often seen with tape trim on the legs, once again black or blue, and were sometimes lined 8 inches up from the bottom, allowing the trouser to fall naturally over a pair of boots. Notice I said over a pair, not tucked in, except for mounted officers.

&160;Trousers is where one can really shine! Think about how your trousers would have been worn through the course of the year … the seat definitely worn, and probably have evidence of cooking by the fire on the upper legs from grease splatter and embers. Most of us have that “ old foul pair” and late in the year they should make an appearance. If you have “ holy” trousers, wear them for September….but be sure to have proper underclothing, or none at all for the truly brave. However do not get arrested.


At this point in the War, CS or Civilian Shoes would prove to be the most common, as the number of Federal Shoes worn by CS troops has been generally highly over estimated. However by Fall 1862, I imagine quite a few soldiers thanked the Federal Quartermaster for their shoes. Shoes lasted maybe a month in hard service, and depending on which campaign we are portraying this upcoming year, having really worn out shoes is correct. Now yes, they were issued new shoes frequently, however all the accounts of barefoot soldiers cannot be all wrong. If you decide to go barefoot, keep in mind, if you do not normally walk around barefoot, it will HURT. And I do not want folks to be miserable at an event, so I discourage folks from doing so, unless their heart is really set on it and their feet are prepared for it.

One other adaptation, that would be just as accurate, but not as painful, is the wearing of two DIFFERENT shoes, one on each foot. We all have had brogans wear out, and mostly one before the other, so perhaps a soldier wearing one CS or Civilian shoe, and one Federal Brogan would not have been that uncommon.


Just plain dirty. Worn and smelling wrong. Your basic civilian shirt works great. A sad fact is that most CS garments fell apart do to ROT, rather than shoddy workmanship. And the rot comes from chemicals your body expels when you sweat…not a nice picture is it?

Canteen / Knapsack / Haversacks

This is one other area in which you can "appear 1862"
The most common canteen would have been the plain tin drum, with cloth or leather strap. This is an inexpensive purchase, and the whole unit would look "uniform" buy carrying these, as well as common white CS issue Haversacks. As a side note, haversacks were filthy affairs, and the common cloth haversack would be coated with grease from the “heart healthy” food soldiers carried in it. Just think of what your haversack would look like after carrying pre-cooked salt pork in it for a few weeks!
The wearing of Militia Pattern Knapsacks, such as the Kibbler Pack in EoG is another way to look 1862. However the good old blanket roll works well in 1862, especially one from a coverlet, carpet piece or civilian blanket. As with shoes, the number of CS troops carrying captured Federal Gear has been exaggerated in many cases early in 1862, however by the end of the year Federal Issue Haversacks, Knapsacks and Canteens would have appeared in greater numbers and in better repair than CS Issued counterparts.

Leather Gear

Many troops still had the state and locally issued gear during this year, with State Buckles and Box Plates. However they were more rare now than last year. Common Civilian and issued Buckle Belts were more common as the year progressed, and CS manufactured cap pouches and Cartridge Boxes were common, as well as captured Federal gear as the progressed, though the use of US buckles worn upside down was truly not common.


These differed based upon the unit portrayed, but as a whole, these are the one item that MUST be clean, safe and functional. I have seen many folks carry weapons that sent chills up my spine. Be sure they are clean and in good repair for your safety, and the safety of your file partners. As a general rule, large side knives were stating to become rare, as after hundreds of miles of hard marching, the Boys were getting tired of lugging the things around.

General Conditioning

Not only for your impression, but for your health as well, walking a few miles a week whenever you can will help prepare you better for any event. I do not want anyone to be miserable at an event, too tired to enjoy it. Whenever you can, take 30 minutes and take a stroll. It is good for your heart, and good for your mind and impression as well. I have gone down at events before, and it has ruined the event for me, and often my pards as well. We all owe it to ourselves to take some time, slow down and walk whenever we can. I consider you all my friends, and if only for the sake of your health, focus some time on conditioning. Your enjoyment of events will increase.

Have fun with your 1862 impression. Read the accounts of what Johnny Reb suffered through in 1862. Think on how that would affect his appearance and adapt. Embrace Dirt. Have fun with it, realize this is probably the last chance in this Cycle to wear State Specific items.


S. Christian Anders

Former Maj’r Gen’l


Southern Division

Authenticity Glorifies the Campaign


As presented on the Southern Division Artillery Uniform Requirements, the 1862 -2012 season will encompass an early, mid-war impression. As the season starts out, the cannoneer should be basically well shod and equipped as he is coming out of his first winter quarters. Supplies from home are still being received and the ranks are starting to fill up from the first summer of war. As we go through the 2012 season, adjust your impression to reflect the situation that you have just been through. After the Seven Days battles you would be worn down a bit. You are still being uniformed from home using the commutation system and maybe a little from Richmond. After all, you were close to the rail lines and Richmond’s supply depot. If you were in the Valley with Jackson, you may have supplemented some of your worn out gear with Federal supplies but still marching light.

After 2nd Manassas, you would another opportunity to up-graded your equipage with dis-carded Federal gear but still you were on the march. In general, ever since you left the battles around Richmond you have been on the move. Moving on to Maryland, liberated Federal leather, knapsacks, haversacks and or canteens would be seen, but not in huge numbers. If you kept your original haversack, it would be dirty and greasy. You may have been lucky and picked up a Federal blanket and threw away your lice infested blanket, however, use good sense with this stage of your impression. Federal gear would be seen but not in over-whelming numbers. The artillery was behind the infantry and unless you moved on through a retreating enemy, chances of obtaining Federal gear may have been slim. The infantry boys may have cleaned up the spoils.

As the season progresses, your jacket would be worn and dirty from several months in the field non-stop. Trousers would be thin and just as fatigued. Slouch hats would be taking on their own character from daily use. If your jacket was from home, put a little trim on it…..but don’t overdo it. If you want a plain jacket, maybe put some ¼” wool tape or 1/8” wool piping down the legs of your trousers. Better yet, just go with a plain jeans jacket and trousers.

Talk to your detachment members. Find out who is wearing what and try to mix it up. Not everyone should have a Federal cannteen or tarred Federal haversack. Everyone should not have on the same color or trimmed jacket. Talk as a group about your first person impressions. I have found if you give yourself a persona, you can tailor it and make better uniform decisions. You may be from a wealthy family and therefore, fully trimmed and better quality clothing is normal. You may be the “dandy” of your mess. Or, you come from a dirt poor family, barley able to make ends meet. Your mother or wife has to really struggle to get you a suit of clothes. When you do get them, they are of a rough woven quality, poorly dyed and are adorned with plain brass or wood buttons. Or, you are in the middle. Your family has sent you a new jacket cut like the jacket you came home wearing last winter. They were able to get some nice brass floral buttons and even put a small amount of piping around the collar and epaulettes. Soldierly but not over the top.

Study photographs and drawings. In addition, read the Southern Division Artillery Uniform Requirements from the web-site. It goes in to more detail for each part of the uniform. Let’s make the Southern Division artillery the most authentic Confederate artillery in the Country. Our infantry is continuing to lead the way in their individual impressions. Let’s us join them.

I remain your servant,

Tim Allen

2nd Co. Washington Artillery of New Orleans


One aspect of the hobby that will increase both your knowledge and enjoyment is tailoring your impression to the specific campaign or timeframe of the Conflict. This allows you to learn more about the material culture as well as giving the public a better vision of the troops of the period.

Often when one reaches, aspires or retrieves a sword from the stone, and assumes the mantel of command, there are many items they need to tend to, from the transition of giving orders rather than receiving them to the responsibility the position demands on and off the field.

It is key however, that officers do not neglect their impression, as in the hobby we all lead by example, and if we wish the men to properly illustrate the Common Soldier of the War, as officers we must strive to do so as well.

Doing a proper officer impression is far more demanding than that of a common rear rank number two. There are far more considerations in the impression, since officers were never issued anything until 1864, when they could draw uniforms from the Quartermaster Department. In 1862 they bought their own uniforms and gear, and the quality and style thereof would often reflect the financial situation of the officer.

The exact rank would also come heavily into play. Line officers would often be less well to do. This, as well as the inability to carry spare uniforms and gear, and the hard use of their gear contributes more to their impression than the impression of a staff officer.

I have tried below to give some guidance in an officer’s impression for 1862. However nothing will make up for true research on the campaign and the officer portrayed.

The Common Line Officer during this year traveled light and looked hard. They, like the men, still would have been covered in road dust, and their clothing and equipment would show hard use. However, they still were easily identified as an officer in 1862, as the quality of the clothing, the cut and details would separate them from the common infantryman. Also as a general rule, the officers tended to come from a higher social class, and as such would strive to appear more “soldierly” than the men in the ranks.

Field Grade Officers tended to have the luxury of spare uniforms, and while still dusty and traveled, overall the impression of an officer that would have been mounted requires less filth than that of the line officer who was down in the clouds of road dust with the men. Their coat skirts, trousers and shoes however would have been in that “cloud” and would show such. Also keep in mind when viewing photographs, that the pictures were often of what they wore TO war, and possibly not IN the war.

Brigade and Higher Staff Officers would have been even more striking, as compared to the soldiers they led, in the fact they were mostly clean and their uniforms in good repair. Combine that with the fact most were politically connected early in the War, and that should lead you to conclude in most cases a clean and well clothed impression is the norm.

Keep in mind as well, with their better economic stature, officers would be in a better position for adapting their uniforms and gear to represent the State and or Unit they were commanding.

Head Gear

There are many choices, and your decision should be based upon what rank, State or unit you are portraying.

Choices could be:

Kepi- Most common with appropriate braid and a bound brim. The body could be manufactured out of jean, satinette, broadcloth or Kersey, again determined by economic stature. You can see good examples of these in the Confederate Version of Echoes of Glory.
CS “McDowell” caps, with or without braid, and having a bound brim.
Properly blocked and lined Civilian Hats were often common during campaign, and if you decide to wear a hat cord, be sure that is a correct Civil War period design.


Taken as a whole, in 1862, Confederate Officers highly favored the double breasted frock coat over the regulation tunic, with its short skirts. Depending on the rank held, and the economic factors, the cloth and details would have been different, but as a general fact, the double breasted gray frock is the most common garment seen in photos and accounts of 1862 officers. The use of “Old Army” blue frocks lessened with each month, so that by the end of 1862 they were quite rare. Also the use of Federal shoulder boards waned, and the Confederate insignia replaced straps. However, early in 1862 one still saw officers using shoulder straps, sometimes with the Confederate collar insignia for good measure.

In 1862 line officers still could also be wearing a single breasted frock coat, with our without sleeve braid, and with either shoulder straps, Collar insignia or both. Cloth choices would be the same as for a double breasted frock.

One under represented garment is the Officer Blouse. There is one pictured in this article. Essentially an officer’s Sack, with pockets for small books, watches (which every officer should have), writing kits, pipes, pistol cartridges…etc… These tended to be very utilitarian in nature, not tailored exactly to the body, and were seen with or without piping, or Austrian Knots; still produced in a quality manner. Rank was often displayed on a lay down collar. Material can be broadcloth, jean, satinette or cashmere.

Many officers were seen in 1862, and for the length of the War, wearing high quality Civilian coats for field use. This was not the most common coat, but was represented in numbers high enough that it should be portrayed. These should reflect the finances of the Officer in cloth and construction.

Finally, some officers had private purchase shell jackets made, and these would be seen occasionally, but as a whole, they were not as common in 1862 as they will be moving into the later years of the War. Be careful if you decide to adopt this impression, as a private’s poorly constructed shell jacket made of slave cloth (jean) would not have been used commonly at all by officers; higher quality manufacturing with either satinette or broadcloth is the way to go.

All in all, a double breasted frock coat is your best purchase, with or without facings and or Austrian Knots. You then can determine the approximate financial standing of the officer you are representing, and can choose your cloth (Jean, Satinette, Broadcloth) based upon those factors.

A note on buttons. The majority of buttons found on extant Confederate Officer coats tends to be of Federal Manufacture, such as Federal Officer I buttons, or Federal Staff Buttons. One can, in 1862, continue to use State buttons if they wish, and some Confederate Officer Buttons, but these are in the minority.


As with Coats there are many variations you could wear based upon rank, unit and financial stature. The Confederacy mandated originally blue as the color of Officer Trousers, which they then changed to gray.

Officer trouser stripes in branch of service color was also mandated, though seldom actually seen in the field. Piping or gold trim seems to be far more common in extant examples.

Officer trousers of the Confederacy did not as a whole follow regulations, nor did they directly follow trends in the Federal Army, for I have not been able to locate one extant pair of CS officer trousers with hip pockets, though I have seen many Federal examples.

Broadcloth, satinette, jean and kersey are all represented through extant examples, and the choice of cloth would also be a financial consideration.

Civilian trousers were also seen on officers, often with reinforced seats to ease the backside when riding.


The wearing of high quality private purchase shirts is highly encouraged. White Bibbed fronts were very common, French cuffs, and a cravat added to the “style”.


At this point in the War, CS or Civilian Shoes would prove to be the most common, with boots falling out of favor with Line Officers, as marching in a pair for any distance is downright painful. Boots were often seen on Field Grade and Higher Officers, though the common practice was to wear the pant leg OVER the boot unless riding through rough terrain.

Overall a good pair of civilian shoes will serve you best, though if you love your boots, wear them properly.


Private purchase canteens were fairly common with the Officer Corps, as well as Officer Haversacks. An officer haversack did not replace the normal haversack for the carrying of foodstuffs, but rather for the pile of true red tape and forms the officer had to submit each and every day, if not more often. So in fact, carrying TWO haversacks is very correct for line officers. One for food and one for paperwork, manuals, order books and red tape.

Often as well you would see Line Officers with Knapsacks rather than blanket rolls in 1862. Knapsacks worked better for carrying all the officer trappings (such as a sash, clean shirt, socks and, yes, more paperwork).

I am not saying that in 1862 officers never carried their spare gear in a blanket roll, but rather that in this period it was far less common than later in the War.

Field Grade Officers would also occasionally have been seen with Knapsacks, though only when on foot. So if you find yourself without your trusty steed, then this is the option for you.

Sword Belts could be Militia, old Army, State or even Confederate Manufacture. In looking at the collection at the Museum of the Confederacy, the majority tended to be made of “folded” leather, even though you do find extant examples made of heavy bridle leather. Over sword hangers featured a D buckle to adjust the hanging of the sword, with the two piece stud also seen, though in lesser number. White Buff Militia belts would probably see their last widespread use in 1862.

One note with sword belts- very seldom did officers wear a cap pouch and pistol cartridge box on the belt itself. Mostly these were stored in the haversack or pocket.


On campaign often these would not be worn later in the war, but for 1862 you would see them fairly regularly. Even if just stored away in the knapsack or valise. Dress Parade was just that. Dress for the occasion.

Writing Kit

HAVE ONE. Preferably with ink and pen.

Side Arms

Your command is your true weapon, and a pistol is the last line for PERSONAL defense. Swords are a mark of rank, and often used to direct “traffic”.

However learning the proper manual of arms for the sword is highly encouraged, and if you decide to carry a pistol, be sure it is “time” correct. Like the “1858” Remington would not be correct for this period as the New Army Model did not show up in Federal Service till 1863.

The carrying of a pistol or revolver is a personal choice, however, if you do decide to carry one, perhaps focus on a private purchase smaller revolver. Lugging a Walker around for 20 miles a day will probably put you in severe pain; they knew that as well.


Like most of the guidelines listed here, the use of tents is determined by rank and also the campaign situation of the event portrayed.

On active campaign the line officer would most likely be camping in the same style as the enlisted men, and often field grade officers like wise. Command staff at the Brigade and Division level would have greater access to Common and Officer Tents, though many accounts of the period find them sleeping, or attempting to in the same manner as the men, And of course often they would find local residents who would allow them to use their homes as Headquarters. Since trespassing is often looked upon poorly, the chance to use a private residence as an officer billet is out of the question at most events.

Keep in mind, even while on campaign and sleeping as such, most battalion and higher commands had a designated HQ area. This would of course be separate from the enlisted bivouac, and a simple fly would suffice.

Brigade and Division HQ can justify common tents in most cases for the higher ranking officers, or at least flies set up to be used as such; this of course being event and campaign specific. If we only had a few wagons…..


Gentlemen, I cannot stress this part of your impression enough. I myself have failed at this before, and have vowed to never let it occur again. The men’s enjoyment of an event can often be tied to the actions of the officer corps of this Division. As such we cannot allow ourselves to be too tired, physically or mentally exhausted, or too ill to be able to lead them properly, or have our judgment impaired.

As such we all need to strive to be in the best condition physically and mentally as we can be. This includes exercising often (cardio is your best friend, though a pain) and getting plenty of rest prior to an event, so we at least start the weekend on a positive sleep vector.

I sincerely hope you find these guidelines helpful and I look forward to seeing you in the field.

S. Christian Anders

Former Mj’r Gen’l


Southern Division


Inspector General’s Dept
Bee’s Brigade
Harpers Ferry Virginia10 June 2011
General Order No.} 1 series 1861

The attention of this office has been drawn to recent reports made by credible media sources of muskets manufactured in India sustaining severe catastrophic failures – i.e. bursting. These muskets are therefore considered a personal safety risk not only to the user but also to participants in the general vicinity, regardless of the situation in which the failures have occurred.

Therefore, the use of muskets manufactured in India by members of Bee’s Brigade is strictly prohibited unless the owner can present evidence that the musket has been ‘proof’ tested by a licensed/registered gunsmith. Company, battalion, and regimental commanders are hereby directed to canvass their commands to determine if muskets of Indian manufacture are within them and to ensure that the required testing has been completed and properly verified.

The respective unit commander is to provide a list of Indian produced muskets to the AIG office.

By command of Major G. Heffner
Assistant Inspector General
R. Watters, AAG


Image from Website

June 3-4, 2017 On to Richmond at Endview Plantation Reenactment, Newport News, VA

Logo of 155th Battle of Crampton's Gap

Sept 15-17, 2017, The 155th Anniversary of the Battle of Crampton's Gap, Burkittsville, MD

Logo of Cedar Creek Battlefield Foundation

Oct 15 - 16, 2017, The 153rd anniversary of the Battle of Cedar Creek, Middletown, VA

Image of Remembrance Day Parade

Nov 18, 2017 The Remembrance Day Parade, Gettysburg PA

40th IL '62 Campaign

58th NC, Co. F at Fort Sanders, 2011

150th Sharpsburg from 22nd NC

Greg Starbuck's Video of 145th Antietam

Miller's Cornfield 150th Battle of Sharpsburg MD

Maryland My Maryland Antietam Reenactment 9/9/2012 Part 1

Maryland My Maryland Antietam Reenactment 9/9/2012 Part 2

David Kincaid's Song of the Irish Brigade (Confederate)

David Kincaid's Confederate Song ~ The Irish Brigade

David Kincaid's The Dreadful Engagement

The 26th North Carolina Regimental Band Civil War Music

26th North Carolina Regiment, Reactivated

Carolina Fifes and Drums at Old Salem, NC

Old 1812 Quickstep - Carolina Fifes and Drums

Recruiting Sergeant - Carolina Fifes and Drums

Liberty Hall Fife & Drum at Antietam

Liberty Hall F&D - Carry Me Back to Virginny Bonnie Blue Flag Dixie

White Cockade and Keemo Kimo by Liberty Hall Fifes and Drums

Bonnie Dundee by Liberty Hall Fifes and Drums

Liberty Hall Fifes and Drums National Muster Leesburg 2007

Colonial Mojo Concert 2009: Liberty Hall Fifes and Drums

New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

150th Battle of New Market Heights

"Authenticity will be our perpetual journey~~ not only in uniform, but in action, drill and attitude. Working together, we can work towards the next level of organization~~ including Evolutions of the Line~~ and together provide a better Civil War experience for our men, while honoring and remembering the brave citizen soldier of 1861."

~ S. Christian Anders

Created in September 2009 by like minded re-enactors, The Southern Division was formed on the eve of the Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War with the purpose to honor, remember and preserve the history of those who fought in this conflict.


Under the command of  Gen. Richard "Dick" Watters, the Southern Division plans to organize one to two events per year and participate in another event per year as a division to provide the members with a variety of experiences. Members of the Southern Division have organized the following events over the last 10 years:

Assault on Allegheny
Morton's Ford
Shenandoah '62
September Storm
Boys of '61
Fire on the Mountain
To the Gates of Washington
Bedford Officer Schools
At High Tide
Burkittsville 1862
Bedford Artillery School
Down the Valley
War on the James
Girding for War
October '62


Members of the Southern Division have raised more than $600,000 for battlefield and historic preservation through various events over the past decade. For example, since 1999, member units raised $65,200 to restore the battle flags of the 6th, 26th, 47th, 52nd, and 58th North Carolina regiments in the North Carolina Museum of History collection, as well as Banners in the Tennessee State Museum.

Members have also erected a regimental monument to the 26th North Carolina on the New Bern, NC battlefield.

There were also many successful efforts in the 1980s and 1990s including donations to the Highland Historical Society, the Adams County Land Conservatory, South Mountain State Battlefield, Berkeley Hundred Plantation, Pamplin Park, Central Maryland Heritage Foundation, as well as the restoration of the North Carolina monument at Gettysburg and assisting the North Caroliniana Society in the erection of two regimental markers for the 26th North Carolina at Gettysburg.